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Types of Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, & Binge Eating Disorder

Common Types of Eating Disorders

Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge Eating Disorder are the most common types of eating disorders. These eating disorders bring about a number of dangerous health risks and potential complications including heart disease, bone loss, and kidney damage. Because of these potentially life threatening complications, if you or someone you knows suffers from any of these main types of eating disorders it is important to receive treatment as soon as possible. Eating disorder treatment facilities are available to help diagnose types of eating disorders and offer personalized treatment programs for both adults and children.

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia is a type of eating disorder in which individuals show an overwhelming aversion to food. People suffering from anorexia demonstrate an obsession with food and weight and will frequently starve themselves in order to lose weight. Individuals with anorexia believe that they are never thin enough regardless of how much weight is lost, which can lead to heart problems, electrolyte imbalances, fertility problems, bone density loss, and death.

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is another common type of eating disorder in which sufferers are characterized by frequent cycles of bingeing and purging. Binges occur when an individual eats an extremely large amount of food, typically foods high in calories or fat, in a short amount of time. Following these binges, an individual will perform one of several purging activities in order to rid themselves of the calories consumed during the binge. These purging behaviors include, but are not limited to, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, fasting, and laxative or diet pill abuse. Individuals suffering from this type of eating disorder are typically at a normal weight or even overweight. Bulimia can result in tooth erosion, stomach distress, GERD, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, low potassium levels, irregular heartbeat, and abnormal bowel functioning.

Binge Eating Disorder

Binge eating disorder is a disorder during which individuals suffer from frequent bingeing episodes. During these binges, an individual will experience a loss of control and will consume large amounts of food and thousands of calories resulting in feeling uncomfortably full. It is common for individuals to feel guilt or shame following a secret binge. Binge eating disorder often results in weight gain or even obesity due to the ingestion of excessive calories with the absence of any purging, or compensatory, behaviors.

Other Types of Eating Disorders

  • Bigorexia / Muscle Dysmorphia: Muscle dysmorphia is a type of eating disorder commonly occurring in bodybuilders and gym-goers. This eating disorder, also known as reverse anorexia, is characterized by the belief that one is too small or weak. Therefore, an individual becomes obsessed with building bigger muscles.
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Body dysmorphia is type of disorder in which a person is extremely concerned with their outward appearance and shows a distorted view of their body including severe flaws or distortions. Individuals suffering from body dysmorphia often develop eating disorders including anorexia in an attempt to control or resolve these perceived flaws.
  • Orthorexia: Orthorexia is another one of the little known types of eating disorders. Individuals suffering from this disorder become obsessed with eating only the “right” kinds of pure, healthy or organic food. The main risk of this eating disorder is that it can develop into a more severe eating disorder including anorexia as an individual continues to limit the types of food that are “safe” to eat. Orthorexia can also result in bulimia if individuals break from their strict diet and then feel they must “punish” themselves by purging or fasting.
  • Night Eating Syndrome: In this eating disorder, individuals consume most of their calories in the evening hours often after dinner. Sometimes, people suffering from night eating syndrome also suffer from insomnia and will wake up in the middle of the night to eat.
  • Pica: Pica is an extremely dangerous type of eating disorder in which a person has an overwhelming desire to eat, lick, or chew non-food items. This disorder, common in pregnant women, small children, and people with mineral deficiencies, can result in malnutrition, damage to teeth, tears in the intestinal lining, infections, and blockages in the digestive tract.
  • Sleep Eating Disorder: This is a type of eating disorder also known as nocturnal sleep-eating disorder. Individuals suffering from this disorder will eat large amounts of food while asleep or in a semi-conscious state with little or no recollection of the event.
 
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Posted by pada Januari 23, 2012 in Psychology

 

Rett Syndrome

Rett syndrome is a rare, severe, “girls only” form of autism. It’s usually discovered in the first two years of life, and a child’s diagnosis with Rett syndrome can feel overwhelming. Although there’s no cure, early identification and treatment may help girls and families who are affected by Rett syndrome.

Who Gets Rett Syndrome?

Rett syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder that affects girls almost exclusively. It’s rare — only about one in 10,000 to 15,000 girls will develop the condition.

In most cases of Rett syndrome, a little girl develops normally in early life. Between 6 and 18 months of age, though, changes in the normal patterns of mental and social development begin.

What Are the Symptoms of Rett Syndrome?

Although it’s not always detected, a slowing of head growth is one of the first events in Rett syndrome. Loss of muscle tone is also an initial symptom. Soon, the little girl loses any purposeful use of her hands. Instead, she habitually wrings or rubs her hands together.

Around 1 to 4 years of age, social and language skills deteriorate in girls with Rett syndrome. A girl with Rett syndrome stops talking. She develops extreme social anxiety and withdrawal or disinterest in other people.

Rett syndrome also causes problems with muscles and coordination. Walking becomes awkward as girls develop a jerky, stiff-legged gait. A girl with Rett syndrome may also have uncoordinated breathing and seizures.

What Causes Rett Syndrome?

Most children with Rett syndrome have a mutation in a particular gene on the X chromosome. Exactly what this gene does, or how its mutation leads to Rett syndrome, isn’t clear. It’s believed that the single gene may influence many other genes involved in development.

Although Rett syndrome seems to be genetic, the faulty gene is almost never inherited from the parents. Rather, it’s a chance mutation that happens in the girl’s own DNA. No Rett syndrome risk factors have been identified, other than being female. There is no known method for prevention of Rett syndrome.

When boys develop the Rett syndrome mutation, they die shortly after birth. Because boys have only one X chromosome (instead of the two girls have), the disease is more serious, and quickly fatal.

How Is Rett Syndrome Diagnosed?

A diagnosis of Rett syndrome is based on a girl’s pattern of symptoms and behavior. The diagnosis can be made on these observations alone. Discussions between a doctor and a girl’s parents will help determine important details, such as when symptoms started.

Genetic testing can help confirm the diagnosis in 80% of girls with suspected Rett syndrome. It’s possible that genetic testing can help predict severity.

 

Treatments for Rett Syndrome

There are treatments available for Rett syndrome. Rett syndrome treatments focus on helping a girl live the best life she can with the condition. Physical therapy can help improve mobility in children with Rett syndrome. Speech therapy may help somewhat with language problems. Occupational therapy helps girls perform daily activities — like bathing and dressing — independently.

Experts believe that therapy can help girls with Rett syndrome and their parents. Although a “normal” life may not be possible, some improvement can be expected with therapy. Participating in activities — including school — and improved social interaction are sometimes possible.

Medicines can treat some of the problems with movement in Rett syndrome. Medication can also help control seizures. Unfortunately, there is no cure for Rett syndrome.

What to Expect With Rett Syndrome

Many girls with Rett syndrome can be expected to live at least into middle age. Researchers are still following women with the disease, which was only widely recognized in the past 20 years.

Symptoms in Rett syndrome don’t usually improve over time. It is a lifelong condition. Often, there is a very slow worsening of symptoms, or symptoms remain stable. Girls and women with Rett syndrome will rarely be able to live independently.

 
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Posted by pada Januari 23, 2012 in Psychology

 

Pervasive Development Disorders (PDDs)

The term “pervasive development disorders,” also called PDDs, refers to a group of conditions that involve delays in the development of many basic skills, most notably the ability to socialize with others, to communicate, and to use imagination. Children with these conditions often are confused in their thinking and generally have problems understanding the world around them.

Because these conditions typically are identified in children around 3 years of age — a critical period in a child’s development — they are called development disorders. Although the condition begins far earlier than 3 years of age, parents often do not notice a problem until the child is a toddler who is not walking, talking, or developing as well as other children of the same age.

What Conditions Are Considered Pervasive Development Disorders?

There are five types of pervasive development disorders:

  • Autism : Children with autism have problems with social interaction, pretend play, and communication. They also have a limited range of activities and interests. Many (nearly 75%) of children with autism also have some degree of mental retardation.
  • Asperger’s syndrome : Like children with autism, children with Asperger’s syndrome have difficulty with social interaction and communication, and have a narrow range of interests. However, children with Asperger’s have average or above average intelligence, and develop normally in the areas of language and cognition (the mental processes related to thinking and learning). Children with Asperger’s often also have difficulty concentrating and may have poor coordination.
  • Childhood disintegrative disorder: Children with this rare condition begin their development normally in all areas, physical and mental. At some point, usually between 2 and 10 years of age, a child with this illness loses many of the skills he or she has developed. In addition to the loss of social and language skills, a child with disintegrative disorder may lose control of other functions, including bowel and bladder control.
  • Rett’s syndrome : Children with this very rare disorder have the symptoms associated with a PDD and also suffer problems with physical development. They generally suffer the loss of many motor or movement, skills — such as walking and use of their hands — and develop poor coordination. This condition has been linked to a defect on the X chromosome, so it almost always affects girls.
  • Pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS): This category is used to refer to children who have significant problems with communication and play, and some difficulty interacting with others, but are too social to be considered autistic.

What Are the Symptoms of Pervasive Development Disorders?

The use of the word “pervasive” to describe these illnesses is somewhat misleading. The definition of pervasive is “to be present throughout,” but children with PDDs generally do not have problems in all areas of functioning. Rather, most children with PDDs have specific problem areas and often function very well in other areas.

What Are the Symptoms of Pervasive Development Disorders? continued…

Children with PDDs, such as autism, can display a wide range of symptoms which can range in severity from mild to disabling. They also vary widely in their individual abilities, intelligence, and behavior.

General symptoms that may be present to some degree in a child with a PDD include:

  • Difficulty with verbal communication, including problems using and understanding language.
  • Difficulty with non-verbal communication, such as gestures and facial expressions.
  • Difficulty with social interaction, including relating to people and to his or her surroundings.
  • Unusual ways of playing with toys and other objects.
  • Difficulty adjusting to changes in routine or familiar surroundings.
  • Repetitive body movements or patterns of behavior, such as hand flapping, spinning, and head banging.
  • Changing response to sound. (The child may be very sensitive to some noises and seem to not hear others.)
  • Temper tantrums
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Fearfulness or anxiety

What Causes Pervasive Development Disorders?

The cause of pervasive development disorders is not known, but researchers are looking for answers. Some studies suggest that PDDs are caused by a problem with the nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Studies currently in progress are examining the structure and function of the brain in people with autism for clues that may help us better understand these conditions, as well as how to treat and/or prevent them.

How Common Are Pervasive Development Disorders?

It is estimated that pervasive development disorders occur in about five to 15 children per 10,000 births. In general, PDDs are more common in boys than in girls, with the exception of Rett’s syndrome, which occurs almost always in girls.

How Are Pervasive Development Disorders Diagnosed?

If symptoms of a pervasive development disorder are present, the doctor will begin an evaluation by performing a complete medical history and physical exam. Although there are no laboratory tests to diagnose a PDD, the doctor may use various tests — such as X-rays and blood tests — to determine if there is a physical disorder causing the symptoms.

If no physical disorder is found, the child may be referred to a specialist in childhood development disorders, such as a child and adolescent psychiatrist or psychologist, pediatric neurologist, developmental pediatrician, or other health professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat PDDs. The doctor bases his or her diagnosis on the child’s level of development, and the doctor’s observation of the child’s speech and behavior, including his or her play and ability to socialize with others. The doctor often seeks input from the child’s parents, teachers, and other adults who are familiar with the child’s symptoms.

How Are Pervasive Development Disorders Treated?

Because children with pervasive development disorders have a range of symptoms and abilities, a plan of therapy must be developed with the child’s specific needs in mind. The treatment plan — or more appropriately, a program of intervention — will address the child’s needs at home and at school. For that reason, intervention planning is a cooperative effort of the parents, health care providers, teachers, and others who may be needed to provide services, such as counselors, social workers and occupational, physical, or speech therapists. The plan aims to promote better socializing and communication, and reduce behaviors that can interfere with learning and functioning.

A plan of care for a child with a PDD may include:

  • Special education: Education is structured to meet the child’s unique educational needs.
  • Behavior modification: This may include strategies for supporting positive behavior by the child.
  • Speech, physical, or occupational therapy: These therapies are designed to increase the child’s functional abilities.
  • Medication: There are no drugs to treat the PDDs themselves. Medications may be used, however, to treat specific symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavior that may result in injury.

What Research Is Being Done on Pervasive Development Disorders?

Most of the research being done on pervasive development disorders focuses on learning more about the causes of these disorders, specifically what is going on in the brain. The goal is to use this knowledge to develop better techniques for diagnosing and treating these disorders, ultimately leading to prevention and cure.

What Is the Outlook for People With Pervasive Development Disorders?

The outlook varies depending on the type and severity of the pervasive development disorder, the age at which treatment is started, and the availability of supportive resources for the child. Most children with PDDs will continue to have some problems with communication and socialization, but many can experience a significant increase in function.

Can Pervasive Development Disorders Be Prevented?

Until more is known about the causes of pervasive development disorders, it is not possible to prevent them. However, the sooner a child with symptoms begins treatment, the better he or she will do in the long run.

 
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Posted by pada Januari 23, 2012 in Psychology

 

Asperger’s Syndrome

Asperger’s syndrome, also called Asperger’s disorder, is a type of pervasive development disorder (PDD). PDDs are a group of conditions that involve delays in the development of many basic skills, most notably the ability to socialize with others, to communicate, and to use imagination.

Although Asperger’s syndrome is similar in some ways to autism — another, more severe type of PDD — there are some important differences. Children with Asperger’s syndrome typically function better than do those with autism. In addition, children with Asperger’s syndrome generally have normal intelligence and near-normal language development, although they may develop problems communicating as they get older.

Asperger’s syndrome was named for the Austrian doctor, Hans Asperger, who first described the disorder in 1944. However, Asperger’s syndrome was not recognized as a unique disorder until much later.

What Are the Symptoms of Asperger’s Syndrome?

The symptoms of Asperger’s syndrome vary and can range from mild to severe. Common symptoms include:

  • Problems with social skills: Children with Asperger’s syndrome generally have difficulty interacting with others and often are awkward in social situations. They generally do not make friends easily.
  • Eccentric or repetitive behaviors: Children with this condition may develop odd, repetitive movements, such as hand wringing or finger twisting.
  • Unusual preoccupations or rituals: A child with Asperger’s syndrome may develop rituals that he or she refuses to alter, such as getting dressed in a specific order.
  • Communication difficulties: People with Asperger’s syndrome may not make eye contact when speaking with someone. They may have trouble using facial expressions and gestures, and understanding body language. They also tend to have problems understanding language in context.
  • Limited range of interests: A child with Asperger’s syndrome may develop an intense, almost obsessive, interest in a few areas, such as sports schedules, weather, or maps.
  • Coordination problems: The movements of children with Asperger’s syndrome may seem clumsy or awkward.
  • Skilled or talented: Many children with Asperger’s syndrome are exceptionally talented or skilled in a particular area, such as music or math.

What Causes Asperger’s Syndrome?

The exact cause of Asperger’s syndrome is not known. However, the fact that it tends to run in families suggests that a tendency to develop the disorder may be inherited (passed on from parent to child).

How Common Is Asperger’s Syndrome?

Asperger’s syndrome has only recently been recognized as a unique disorder. For that reason, the exact number of people with the disorder is unknown, although it is more common than autism. Estimates suggest Asperger’s syndrome affects from 0.024% to 0.36% of children. It is more common in males than in females, and usually is first diagnosed in children between the ages of 2 and 6 years.

How Is Asperger’s Syndrome Diagnosed?

If symptoms are present, the doctor will begin an evaluation by performing a complete medical history and physical exam. Although there are no tests for Asperger’s syndrome, the doctor may use various tests — such as X-rays and blood tests — to determine if there is a physical disorder causing the symptoms.

If no physical disorder is found, the child may be referred to a specialist in childhood development disorders, such as a child and adolescent psychiatrist or psychologist, pediatric neurologist, developmental pediatrician, or another health professional who is specially trained to diagnose and treat Asperger’s syndrome. The doctor bases his or her diagnosis on the child’s level of development, and the doctor’s observation of the child’s speech and behavior, including his or her play and ability to socialize with others. The doctor often seeks input from the child’s parents, teachers, and other adults who are familiar with the child’s symptoms.

How Is Asperger’s Syndrome Treated?

There currently is no cure for Asperger’s syndrome, but treatment may improve functioning and reduce undesirable behaviors. Treatment may include a combination of the following:

  • Special education: Education that is structured to meet the child’s unique educational needs.
  • Behavior modification: This includes strategies for supporting positive behavior and decreasing problem behavior by the child.
  • Speech, physical, or occupational therapy: These therapies are designed to increase the child’s functional abilities.
  • Medication : There are no medications to treat Asperger’s syndrome itself, but drugs may be used to treat specific symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive behavior.

What Is the Outlook for People With Asperger’s Syndrome?

Children with Asperger’s syndrome are at risk for developing other mental illnesses, such as depression, ADHD, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. But, there are various treatment options available for these conditions.

Because the level of intelligence often is average or higher than average, many people with Asperger’s syndrome are able to function very well. They may, however, continue to have problems socializing with others through adulthood.

Can Asperger’s Syndrome Be Prevented?

Asperger’s syndrome cannot be prevented or cured. However, early diagnosis and treatment can improve function and quality of life.

 
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Posted by pada Januari 23, 2012 in Psychology

 

History of Autism

From the early 1900s, autism has referred to a range of psychological conditions. But where did the term come from, and how has knowledge about autism changed? Do you know how autism is diagnosed and treated? Do you want to know more about the different types of autism? Read on to learn about the history and the current understanding of this challenging condition.

Where Did the Term “Autism” Come From?

The word “autism,” which has been in use for about 100 years, comes from the Greek word “autos,” meaning “self.” The term describes conditions in which a person is removed from social interaction — hence, an isolated self.

Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, was the first person to use the term. He started using it around 1911 to refer to one group of symptoms of schizophrenia.

In the 1940s, researchers in the United States began to use the term “autism” to describe children with emotional or social problems. Leo Kanner, a doctor from Johns Hopkins University, used it to describe the withdrawn behavior of several children he studied. At about the same time, Hans Asperger, a scientist in Germany, identified a similar condition that’s now called Asperger’s syndrome.

Autism and schizophrenia remained linked in many researchers’ minds until the 1960s. It was only then that medical professionals began to have a separate understanding of autism in children.

From the 1960s through the 1970s, research into treatments for autism focused on medications such as LSD, electric shock, and behavior change techniques. The latter relied on pain and punishment.

During the 1980s and 1990s, the role of behavior therapy and the use of highly controlled learning environments emerged as the primary treatments for many forms of autism and related conditions. Currently, the cornerstone of autism therapy is behavior therapy. Other treatments are added as needed.

What Are the Symptoms of Autism?

One symptom common to all types of autism is an inability to easily communicate and interact with others. In fact, some people with autism are unable to communicate at all. Others may have difficulty interpreting body language or holding a conversation.

Other symptoms linked to autism may include unusual behaviors in any of these areas:

  • interest in objects or specialized information
  • reactions to sensations
  • ways of learning

These symptoms are usually seen early in development. Most children with severe autism are diagnosed by age 3. Some children with milder forms of autism, such as Asperger’s syndrome, may not be diagnosed until later when their problems with social interaction cause difficulties at school.

What Are the Types of Autism?

Over time, psychiatrists have developed a systematic way of describing autism and related conditions. All of these conditions are placed within a group of conditions called pervasive development disorders (PDD). Within PDDs, the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) category includes the following:

Autistic disorder: Children with autistic disorder cannot use verbal or non-verbal communication to interact effectively with others. Usually, children with autistic disorder have severe delays in learning language. They may have obsessive interest in certain objects or information. They may perform certain behaviors repeatedly. To be diagnosed with autistic disorder, symptoms must have been noted before age 3.

Pervasive development disorder — not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): Children diagnosed with “atypical autism” are included in this group. Children with PDD-NOS have symptoms that do not exactly fit those of autistic disorder or any other ASD. For example, the symptoms may have developed after age 3. Or the symptoms may not be severe enough to be considered autistic disorder.

Asperger’s syndrome: Children with Asperger’s syndrome may display many of the same symptoms as children with autistic disorder. However, they usually have average or above average intelligence. They often want to be social with others but don’t know how to go about it. They may not be able to understand others’ emotions. They may not read facial expressions or body language well. Their symptoms may not become apparent until school. Then they’re noticed when behavior and communication with peers become more important.

Other conditions share symptoms with PDDs and ASDs. These conditions include the following:

Rett syndrome: Children with this severe, rare condition begin with normal development from birth through about 5 months of age. However, from about 5 to 48 months of age, head circumference development slows. Children lose motor skills and social interaction and language development become impaired.

Childhood disintegrative disorder: Like Rett syndrome, children begin developing normally. However, from about age 2 to age 10, children are increasingly less able to interact and communicate with others. At the same time, they develop repetitive movements and obsessive behaviors and interests. They lose motor skills, too. This usually leads to them becoming disabled. This autism-like condition is the rarest and most severe autism spectrum disorder.

What Causes Autism?

Autism runs in families. The underlying causes, however, are unknown. Most researchers agree that the causes are likely to be genetic. Others also believe that environmental factors may be involved.

 

How Is Autism Treated?

Treatments for autism vary depending on the needs of the individual. In general, treatments fall into three categories:

  • behavior and communication therapy
  • medical and dietary therapy
  • complementary therapy

What Is Behavior and Communication Therapy for Autism?

The primary treatment for autism includes programs that address several key areas. Those areas are behavior, communication, sensory integration, and social skill development. Addressing these areas requires close coordination between parents, teachers, special education professionals, and mental health professionals.

How Do Medical and Dietary Therapies Treat Autism?

The goal of medication is to make it easier for the person with autism to participate in activities such as learning and behavior therapy. Drugs used to treat anxiety, attention problems, depression, hyperactivity, and impulsivity may be recommended.

There is some evidence that people with autism may have certain deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. These deficiencies don’t cause autism. Supplements, though, may be recommended to improve nutrition. Vitamin B and magnesium are two of the most frequent supplements used for people with autism.

Diet changes may also help with some symptoms of autism. Food allergies, for example, may make behavior problems worse. Removing the allergen from the diet may improve behavior issues.

 

How Are Complementary Therapies Used to Treat Autism?

These treatments may help increase learning and communications skills in some people with autism. Complementary therapies include music, art, or animal therapy, such as horseback riding or swimming with dolphins.

Future Research and Treatment of Autism

Researchers, health professionals, parents, and persons with autism all have strong opinions about the direction future autism research should take. Everyone would like to find a cure for autism. However, many feel that finding a cure is unlikely. Instead, scarce resources should be devoted toward helping people with autism find better ways to live with the condition.

No matter what the view toward the future, many techniques and treatments exist now that can help relieve the pain and suffering of autism. These treatments offer many options for improving quality of life of people with autism.

 
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Posted by pada Januari 23, 2012 in Psychology

 

9 Cara Membuat Otak Anda Berpikir Lebih Cepat

1. Ambillah dosis EPA secukupnya EPA adalah bahan kimia dalam minyak ikan yang merupakan makanan bagi otak, setiap orang pasti sudah mengetahuinya, jadi mengapa tidak memberikannya kapsul minyak ikan setiap hari untuk meningkatkan kekuatannya. Riset menunjukan bahwa minyak ikan dapat memfasilitasi peningkatan aktivitas pada otak, memperlancar peredaran darah, meningkatkan memori dan konsentrasi.

2. Seks secara teratur Berhubungan seks dapat melepaskan senyawa kimia yang dapat meningkatkan kekuatan otak, menurut buku terkini “Teach yourself. Training your brain” yang ditulis oleh pengajar senior dan seorang ahli biologi. Seks adalah bentuk sempurna dari latihan, yang juga meningkatkan peredaran darah ke otak. Ia dapat mengurangi stress dan ketegangan yang menurunkan efisiensi kinerja otak.

3. Kerjakan sebuah teka teki Teka-teki silang, Sudoku atau yang lainnya dapat membuat otak Anda tetap pada kondisi terbaik. Sama seperti otot, jika Anda tidak berlatih secara reguler, ia akan kehilangan kemampuannya untuk bekerja secara maksimal.

4. Pergi berjalan kaki Tidak ada yang dapat mengalahkan udara segar yang dapat menyegarkan pikiran yang dapat mengurangi percakapan mental yang mengganggu logika dan pikiran konstruktif. Sebuah perjalanan di pinggiran kota, dekat sungai atau sekedar di taman akan membantu Anda menyingkirkan awan kelabu dan membantu pikiran Anda tetap jernih.

5. Mempelajari bahasa baru Mempelajari bahasa baru dapat sindrom dementia (kemunduran otak) sampai dengan empat tahun menurut artikel yang dimuat pada New Scientist. Alasan pasti untuk hal ini belum diketahui, namun dipercaya bahwa ia memiliki hubungan erat dengan peningkatan perdaran darah dan koneksi saraf yang baik.

6. Tertawa Tawa bukan saja merupakan obat terbaik, ia juga dapat meningkatkan fungsi otak dan menstimulasi kedua sisi otak pada saat yang bersamaan. Pastikan Anda tertawa setiap harinya.

7. Menjadi kreatifif Melukislah atau pelajari alat musik yang baru, bergabunglah dengan kelas kesenian walaupun Anda yakin Anda payah dalam hal tersebut. Menjadi kreatif memungkinkan Anda untuk menemukan solusi baru untuk permasalahan yang sudah lama dan meningkatkan kesadaran pada saat yang bersamaan.

8. Belajar melempar barang Riset dari Universitas Regensburg di Jerman memindai otak dari seorang juggler (pemain sulap yang melemparkan barang) dan menemukan bahwa kegiatan ini dapat meningkatkan struktur otak. Setelah berlatih selama tiga bulan, otak akan menunjukan peningkatan signifikan pada dua bagian, yaitu bagian mid-portal dan posterior intraprietal sulcus kiri.

9. Berhubungan dengan sifat keanak-anakan Anda Einstein pernah berkata bahwa imajinasi lebih penting daripada pengetahuan dan ia menggunakannya pada beberapa eksperimen yang akhirnya membuatnya menemukan perhitungan paling terkenal sepanjang masa (E=MC2). Cobalah lihat anak-anak, mereka penuh dengan imajinasi, dan mereka belajar lebih banyak pada tahun-tahun awal kehidupan mereka lebih daripada apa yang kita pelajari selama satu dekade. Bebaskan pikiran Anda dari penjara pikiran “seorang dewasa”, Anda akan menemukan cara berpikir yang belum pernah ada sebelumnya, Anda mungkin akan membuat penemuan besar yang berikutnya.

 
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Posted by pada Januari 23, 2012 in Share, Uncategorized

 

Mau Beli Rumah Harus Bayar Apa Saja?

Biaya untuk beli rumah tidak terbatas pada harga rumah, ada beberapa biaya lain yang harus dibayar. Dengan mengetahui biaya-biaya yang perlu dikeluarkan, Anda bisa mempersiapkan dana dan merencanakan keuangan. Berikut-berikut ini adalah biaya-biaya yang akan Anda keluarkan.

Uang tanda jadi. Umumnya, jumlah uang tanda jadi ini ditentukan pengembang. Anda akan mendapat formulir pemesanan unit dengan jadwal pembayaran tanda jadi dan pelunasan uang muka. Jadwal harus disetujui oleh kedua pihak.

Uang muka. Pembayaran uang muka dapat diangsur dengan jadwal tertentu. Sebaiknya, pembayaran uang muka ini dilakukan setelah akad kredit Anda disetujui bank. Dengan pengembang, Anda akan menandatangani Surat Perjanjian Jual Beli (SPJB) di depan notaris. SPJB menyatakan bahwa Anda akan melunasi uang muka setelah akad kredit disetujui bank.
Biaya notaris untuk mengikat kredit secara hukum.
Angsuran. Perlu dicatat bahwa angsuran KPR–ditambah angsuran-angsuran lain–jangan sampai lebih dari sepertiga gaji Anda. Anda bisa mencoba simulasi KPR yang ada di situs web Rumah.com.

Urutan prosesnya berawal dari uang tanda jadi, tanda tangan SPJB, lalu pelunasan uang muka. Bank kemudian akan melakukan survei penilaian aset properti untuk menentukan harga jual dan legalitas properti. Legalitas dokumen yang diperlukan termasuk Sertifikat Tanah, IMB, SPPT PBB, Surat Kuasa Jual, dan sebagainya. Bank akan memberikan keputusan tentang kelayakan properti untuk proses akad kredit setelah semua dokumen dilengkapi. Bank akan memberi tahu jika ada dokumen yang diperlukan

Bank kemudian akan melakukan survei penilaian aset properti untuk menentukan harga jual dan legalitas properti. Legalitas dokumen yang diperlukan termasuk Sertifikat Tanah, IMB, SPPT PBB, Surat Kuasa Jual, dan sebagainya. Bank akan memberikan keputusan tentang kelayakan properti untuk proses akad kredit setelah semua dokumen dilengkapi. Bank akan memberi tahu jika ada dokumen yang diperlukan.

Sebelum permohonan KPR disetujui, bank akan menganalisis kemampuan Anda membayar angsuran. Umumnya, bank akan meminta total pendapatan keluarga Anda dan angsuran tidak melebihi sepertiga pendapatan. Verifikasi dilakukan dengan memeriksa rekening koran selama 3 sampai 6 bulan terakhir.

Jika dibutuhkan, Bank Indonesia akan memeriksa transaksi kartu kredit, kredit kendaraan bermotor, KPR lain, kredit lain, dan biaya hidup bulanan. Dalam waktu dua minggu hingga dua bulan, bank akan mengeluarkan keputusan mengenai permohonan KPR.

Setelah itu, akad kredit dilakukan. Selanjutnya, Anda wajib membayar angsuran. Surat Pelunasan Utang akan diberikan oleh bank. Anda juga akan menerima Sertifikat Asli Kepemilikan Unit Properti.

 
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Posted by pada Januari 23, 2012 in Share, Uncategorized

 
 
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